In addition to Customs Union, Turkey has free-trade agreements with 22 countries. The top personal income tax rate is 35 percent, and the top corporate tax rate is 22 percent.  However, in line with the rapid growth of Turkey's GDP during the first two decades of the 21st century (with brief periods of stagnation and recession), parts of Anatolia began reaching a higher economic standard. Corruption, including money laundering, bribery, and collusion in the allocation of government contracts, remains a major problem even at the highest levels of government. The pipeline network in Turkey included 1,738 kilometres (1,080 mi) for crude oil, 2,321 kilometres (1,442 mi) for petroleum products, and 708 kilometres (440 mi) for natural gas in 1999. Turkey is an oil and natural gas producer, but the level of production by the state-owned TPAO is not enough to make the country self-sufficient, which makes Turkey a net importer of both oil and gas.
This financial breakdown reduced the number of banks to 31. When the GNIs of every country in the world are added together, the value of imports and exports are in balance. These measures have helped India accelerate economic growth. The largest mobile phone operators in the country are Turkcell, Vodafone Turkey, Avea and TTNET Mobil. Turkish agriculture emits greenhouse gases and suffers from climate change in Turkey. Turkey’s economic freedom score is 64.4, making its economy the 71st freest in the 2020 Index. Economic growth and prosperity are impacted by a wide array of factors, namely investment in workforce education, production output (as determined by investment in physical capital), natural resources, and entrepreneurship. The pipeline delivers crude oil from the Caspian Sea basin to the port of Ceyhan on Turkey's Mediterranean coast, from where it is distributed with oil tankers to the world's markets. Brazil is also the largest and most populous nation in Latin America. Exports are 70,000 tonnes (69,000 long tons; 77,000 short tons) of table olives and 60,000 tonnes (59,000 long tons; 66,000 short tons) of olive oil a year.  The largest landline telephone operator is Türk Telekom, which also owns TTNET, the largest internet service provider in Turkey. The chemical industry is a key sector for France, as well as agriculture and tourism.
" Many old agricultural attitudes remain widespread.  In January 2010, International credit rating agency Moody's Investors Service upgraded Turkey's rating one notch. $7.15. As the second-largest economy in the world, China has seen an average growth rate of 9.52% between 1989 and 2019. World Economic Outlook", "Turkey's Lessons for Emerging Economies - Caixin Global", "Turkey's economy sees recovery signs as risks remain_English_Xinhua", "Employment - Labour force participation rate - OECD Data", "Private wealth in Turkey in decline: Report", "How Turkey fell from investment darling to junk-rated emerging market", "Turkish current account deficit more than doubles", "Inflation rise poses challenge to Erdogan as election looms", Moo upgrades government bond rating amidst crisis, "Goldman Sachs's MIST Topping BRICs as Smaller Markets Outperform", "Turkey Regains Investment-Grade Rating After Long Wait", "UPDATE 1-Turkey hails new investment grading but worries about money flows", "Turkey Raised to Investment Grade by Moody's on Debt Cuts", "S&P cuts Turkey's rating deeper into 'junk, "Borsa Istanbul Stock Exchange breaking records", "Turkey's leader is helping to crash its currency", "Investors lose their appetite for Turkey", "Turkish stock market hits lowest since 2008 crisis", "Turkish growth forecast almost halved at Moody's", "EU's share in Turkey's exports hit 53 percent in February with sharp annual increase: Association", "Turkey Overseas Investment Rises 10 Times in 15 Years", "Turkey's overseas investments increase tenfold over last 15 years", "Turkish businesses FDI outflow rises 10 times in 15 years: Index", "Turkish real estate ills reflect Erdoğan's snap poll decision", "Turkish property firms to slash prices in one-month drive to revive market", "Life in Turkey Now: Tough Talk, but Fears of Drug Shortages", "Turkey's economy looks like it's headed for a big crash", "Turkey's economy slips into recession, according to new figures", "Turkey's economic rebound will be 'gradual': EBRD", "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects", Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Repository, More from less: policy options and farmer choice under and Drainage Systems, "Southeastern Anatolia Project: What is G.A.P.?  Historically, Turkey's farmers have been fairly fragmented. According to the CIA World Factbook, other natural resources include coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, uranium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestine (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower, and geothermal power. Fertilizer and pesticide subsidies have been curtailed and remaining price supports have been gradually converted to floor prices. , The total length of the rail network was 10,991 km in 2008, ranking 22nd in the world, including 2,133 km of electrified track. Additionally, France ranks 5th in the Fortune Global 500 behind the United States, China, Japan, and Germany with 28 of the 500 biggest companies. These values are calculated using the 1992 revision of the Harmonized System classification. PPP stands for purchasing power parity. Canada has the tenth-largest economy in the world with a nominal GDP of $1.73 trillion. The German economy is currently in the middle of its fourth industrial revolution due to the Internet and the digital age. Unfortunately, Italy is experiencing a relatively high unemployment rate of 9.7% and a debt at 132% of GDP. The financial system is evolving toward greater transparency and competitiveness.
Several business-friendly reforms were adopted in the past year, but transferring property became more costly. , As of 2015, there were 42,275,017 internet users in Turkey, which ranked 15th in the world; while as of 2012, there were 7,093,000 internet hosts in the country, which ranked 16th in the world.. The companies that operate in the sector are mainly located in the Marmara Region. , As of 2010, the Turkish merchant marine included 1,199 ships (604 registered at home), ranking 7th in the world. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the monetary market value of all final goods and services made within a country during a specific period.  However, by 2018 the share of exports going to the EU was back above fifty percent. The U.S. is known globally for cultivating a society that supports and encourages entrepreneurship, which encourages innovation and, in turn, leads to economic growth.  Similarly, from 2002 to 2011, the budget deficit decreased from more than 10 percent to less than 3 percent, which is one of the EU Maastricht criteria for the budget balance.  EU market share of Turkish companies in consumer electronics has increased significantly following the Customs Union agreement signed between the EU and Turkey: in color TVs from 5% in 1995 to more than 50% in 2005, in digital devices from 3% to 15%, and in white goods from 3% to 18%. Additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay, is facilitating communication between urban centers. All foreign exchange transfers are exclusively handled by the central bank. PPP GDP is used to measure both the economic growth and living standards in a country, making it a useful tool in global comparisons.  Turkish Satellite Assembly, Integration and Test Center is a spacecraft production and testing facility owned by the Ministry of National Defence and operated by the Turkish Aerospace Industries. India’s economic liberalization began in the early 1990s and included industrial deregulation, reduced control on foreign trade and investment, and privatization of state-owned enterprises. All Rights Reserved. The program includes 22 dams, 19 hydraulic power plants, and the irrigation of 1.82 million hectares of land. , On August 10, 2018, Turkish currency lira nosedived following Trump's tweet about doubling tariffs on Turkish steel and aluminum that day. , Olio Officina Globe reported 2016 olive statistics for Turkey: There are 180 million trees covering 700,000 hectares (1,700,000 acres) with a production of 500,000 tonnes (490,000 long tons; 550,000 short tons) of table olives and 300,000 tonnes (300,000 long tons; 330,000 short tons) of olive oil. Although the economy has shown resilience in the past, political instability has blocked needed reforms, and a 2018 currency crisis and recession have put severe pressure on the country. The Ankara-Eskişehir section of the line, which has a length of 245 km and a projected travel time of 65 minutes, is completed. Following the construction of experimental reactors, proposals to build large scale nuclear power plants were presented as early as in the 1950s by Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, but plans were repeatedly canceled even after bids were made by interested manufacturers because of high costs and safety concerns.  As of January 5, 2018, the Index reached 116,638 points. The economy of Turkey is an emerging market economy as defined by the International Monetary Fund. Its overall score has decreased by 0.2 point due to a lower fiscal health score. On nominal basis, US is ahead of China by $7.05 trillion.
Photos, statistics and additional rankings of Turkey. Foreign investment is welcome, but restrictions remain in effect in a number of sectors. Turkey is ranked 36th among 45 countries in the Europe region, and its overall score is well below the regional average and above the world average. , The share of renewable energy, which serves as one of the most important pillars of the National Energy and Mine Policy and led by hydro, wind and solar energy, reached 32 percent in the third quarter of 2017, surpassing the target of 30 percent that was set for 2023. Notable producers (above 2 million tonnes) and their ranks among top steel producing companies. While the 2008 financial crisis took a hit on the Japanese economy and has stunted its growth since then, it is expected that the 2020 Olympics will give it a boost. The Tabriz–Ankara pipeline is a 2,577-kilometre-long (1,601-mile) natural gas pipeline, which runs from Tabriz in northwestern Iran to Ankara in Turkey. This followed a 1.6% drop the previous quarter.  On May 10, 2017, the Borsa Istanbul (BIST-100 Index), the benchmark index of Turkey's stock market, set a new record high at 95,735 points.  Turkey is also defined by economists and political scientists as one of the world's newly industrialized countries. These were Kentbank (owned by Süzer); Park Yatırım Bankası (owned by Karamehmet); Toprakbank (owned by Toprak); Bank Ekspres (owned by Betil); and Alternatif Bank (owned by Doğan.)  In 2002, there were 12 Intelsat satellite earth stations; and 328 mobile satellite terminals in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems..
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