“Home–School Differences in Beliefs, Support, and Control during Public Pre-Kindergarten and Their Link to Children’s Kindergarten Readiness.” Early Childhood Research Quarterly vol.
Jennings, J.L., and T.A. Policymakers can begin by learning from the small-scale, district-level strategies presented in the review of case studies above (see the section “What are pioneering school districts doing to combat these inequities and resulting gaps?” above).
Figure A provides a graphic illustration of the unadjusted gaps in cognitive and noncognitive skills of high- and low-SES children across the two cohorts.
ii. Secretary of Education Visits First Rural Promise Neighborhood” (news release).
For example, there are only 24 hours per day to read to your child, so there is a cap on reading from a cap on time.
The authors gratefully acknowledge Rob Grunewald and Milagros Nores for their insightful comments and advice on earlier drafts of the paper.
The decomposition conducted here helps clarify the different weights that various components of SES may have in driving changes in gaps by social class. Key Findings from the Report “Education Inequalities at the School Starting Gate”.
Because the computed scale scores are sums of probabilities, the scores are not integers. Huff, June 2016. Newsroom
Note that the SES quintiles are constructed using each year’s distribution, and that changes in the overall and relative distribution may affect the characteristics of children in the different quintiles each year (i.e., there may be some groups who are relatively overrepresented in one or another quintile if changes in the SES components changed over time).
As they work actively with their “connectors,” Northside Achievement Zone parents in North Minneapolis become more likely to make academics a priority, to engage with their children’s schools, and to be focused on sending their children to college. Tourangeau et al. A Broader, Bolder Approach to Education. Waldfogel, Jane. Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS).
For example, the relative gap is 1.29 sd in reading and 1.46 sd in math when mother’s education is the SES proxy, compared with gaps of 0.74 sd and 0.97 sd when number of books in the home is the SES proxy. As we will see, in essence, point estimates depend on the metric used, but the results do not change in a meaningful way and conclusions and implications remain unchanged. A clustered design was used to limit the number of geographic areas and to minimize the number of schools and the costs of the study (Tourangeau et al. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics. 2016, among others). For more on this topic, see Burris 2017, PBS NewsHour 2015, and Simon 2013. In Vancouver, Washington, 6,000 “literacy packets” are delivered annually to families with children up to age five, providing child-development activities and lessons that families can complete at home (Weiss 2016b).
Beginning with our unadjusted model (data column one), the only substantial increase in the gap between high- and low-SES children from 1998 to 2010 was in reading skills, which increased by one-tenth of a standard deviation.
Montgomery County has expanded its breakfast-in-the-classroom program to serve all students in a growing share of schools (MCPS 2017).
New York: Children’s Aid Society. The companion table, Appendix Table D1, shows the range of variation for the four outcomes (mean and standard deviations are 0 and 1 as per construction). 2002. Our educational system is urban biased in the matter of location of facilities; allocation of finance etc is a well …
The Northside Achievement Zone (NAZ) is a Promise Neighborhood, a designation awarded by the U.S. Department of Education Promise Neighborhoods program to some of the most distressed neighborhoods in the nation. The most effective ones begin very early in children’s lives and are sustained throughout their K–12 years and beyond. 2004. The dataset in the first year followed a stratified design structure (Ready 2010, 274), in which the primary sampling units were geographic areas consisting of counties or groups of counties.
Joplin’s Little Blue Bookshelf program gives age-appropriate books to those children whose families cannot afford them, making the goal of 1,000 hours of reading by kindergarten a viable reality for every child. New York: Simon and Schuster. 2017.
Students who attended the North Minneapolis Northside Achievement Zone’s extended learning summer programs increased their reading test scores between the end of one school year and the beginning of the next, a period when scores normally decrease.
The paragraphs above emphasize how controls mediate or explain some of the skills gaps by SES, so, in a way, controls inform our analysis of gaps because they reveal how changes in gaps may have been affected by changes in various factors’ capacity to influence performance. Duncan, Greg J., Pamela A. Morris, and Chris Rodrigues.
2016. The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study asks both parents and teachers to rate children’s abilities across a range of these skills. Nutrition is another critical factor that affects physical and mental health and thus learning. 2012. Annie E. Casey Foundation.
Economic Policy Institute. Teachers and school administrators completed the questionnaires in their schools.
And City Connects’ practice of helping families draw on Medicaid coverage and of referring eligible students to insurance-eligible providers increases students’ access to both physical and mental health care.
In most of the districts studied, schools partner with organizations such as the YMCA, Boys and Girls Clubs, Boy Scouts, and Girl Scouts to provide out-of-school enrichment programs that range from organized sports and help with homework to math and book clubs, theater, and robotics. The East Durham Children’s Initiative in North Carolina is entirely privately funded so far (Weiss 2016e). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Office of Education.
26. And the city’s Lend & Learn Libraries provide stimulating toys and socialization time for young children and their parents. This means that though part of the SES gap is attributable to differences in these characteristics and in family investments between children in the high and low parts of the SES distribution, a substantial share of SES-related factors is not captured by these controls, but is important to explaining how and why gaps develop, and thus how to narrow them. As of fall 2015, Vancouver’s new early learning center serves up to 100 additional children or more, with hot meals and playground space from an adjacent elementary school.
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