Finally the Assembly passed the Act Against Slavery that legislated the gradual abolition of slavery: no slaves could be imported; slaves already in the province would remain enslaved until death, no new slaves could be brought into Upper Canada, and children born to female slaves would be slaves but must be freed at age 25. This law came into effect on August 1, 1834. Owners of freed slaves had to provide for their security. Despite this history of slavery and resistance, the myth of Canada, created and entrenched long ago, remains. [3] Upper Canada passed the Act Against Slavery in 1793, one of the earliest anti-slavery acts in the world. 170. [16] Some nations in British Columbia continued to segregate and ostracize the descendants of slaves as late as the 1970s. But a lie this long will eventually be overwhelmed by a history that can no longer be contained in the dustbins. Canada, made wealthy by the global trade in black bodies, by unpaid labour on much of these lands, has fashioned a satisfying sense of itself that will not easily be torn apart. But not as well known is the fact that slavery existed in Canada for decades, before the institution was outlawed by the Imperial Government in London in 1834. Among a few Pacific Northwest nations about a quarter of the population were slaves. [9] Atlantic Canada saw 1,200 to 2,000 slaves arrive prior to abolition, with 300 accounted for in Lower Canada, and between 500 and 700 in Upper Canada. [32] Historian Alan Wilson describes the document as "a landmark on the road to personal freedom in province and country". [6] They were house servants and farm workers. If they ran away a second time, their hamstrings were cut. In all, Brant owned about forty black slaves. He later immigrated to Sierra Leone, where he helped found Freetown and became the first Methodist missionary to African indigenous people. Daily witnesses to such acts of brutality, many slaves escaped. The elected members of the executive council, many of whom were merchants or farmers who depended on slave labour, saw no need for emancipation. Slavery had a long history in British colonies, and had existed in New France before the Conquest. "They uplift aggression and carnage into courage, they exaggerate cunning into pride.". By 1790 the abolition movement was gaining credence in Canada and the ill intent of slavery was evidenced by an incident involving a slave woman being violently abused by her slave owner on her way to being sold in the United States. As a result, slaves began to flee their masters within the province, but also from other provinces and from the United States. The British government acted in expectation of that, especially in the southern campaigns in 1780–81. David Shanahan - April 22, 2020. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The only difference between a slave and a cow, as Trudel puts it, "was that the slave was worth five times as much." In The Transatlantic Slave Trade, Stephen D. Behrendt writes of early Canadian shipyards constructing ships for the British slave trade. In an economy propelled by the fur trade, as well as urban economies in some places, enslaved Africans worked as rat catchers, hangmen, and domestic servants.

He was later affiliated with the First African Baptist Church of Savannah, Georgia. According to Afua Cooper, author of "The Hanging of Angélique: The Untold Story of Canadian Slavery and the Burning of Old Montréal", enslaved First Nations people outnumbered enslaved individuals of African descent under French rule. Slavery in Canada. However, the social, economic, and legal positions of slaves have differed vastly in different systems of slavery in different times and places. In the late 18th century, when some northern U.S. colonies abolished slavery or made efforts to do so gradually, "many Upper Canadians enslaved Blacks escaped into these free territories," writes Cooper about this kind of reverse Underground Railroad. The first Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada, John Graves Simcoe, had led Loyalist militia during the American Revolution, but was personally strongly opposed to slavery. In particular, the term refers to men who escaped the enslavement of Patriot masters and served on the Loyalist side because of the Crown's promises of freedom.

The code noir does not seem to have applied to Canada and so, in 1709, the intendant Jacques Raudot issued an ordinance officially recognizing slavery in New France; slavery existed before that date, but only as of 1709 was it instituted in law. By. After the American Revolution, many of the Loyalists who were forced to remove to the colony of Quebec brought their slaves with them. It banned the importation of slaves and mandated that children born henceforth to female slaves would be freed upon reaching the age of 25. It banned the importation of slaves and mandated that children born henceforth to female slaves would be freed upon reaching the age of 25. The Book of Negroes is a document created by Brigadier General Samuel Birch that records names and descriptions of 3,000 Black Loyalists, enslaved Africans who escaped to the British lines during the American Revolution and were evacuated to points in Nova Scotia as free people of colour. By the end of the War of 1812 and the arrival of the Black Refugees, there were few slaves left in Nova Scotia [40] (The Slave Trade Act outlawed the slave trade in the British Empire in 1807 and the Slavery Abolition Act of 1833 outlawed slavery altogether.). "In my engagement with African Canadian history, I have come to realize that Black history has less to do with Black people and more with White pride," writes Afua Cooper in The Hanging of Angélique: The Untold Story of Canadian Slavery and the Burning of Old Montréal. Marie-Joseph Angélique was the black slave of a rich widow in Montreal. North Grenville marks Franco-Ontarian Day, Celebrating the generous spirit of our community.

They became known as the Black Loyalists. In Lower Canada, for example, after court decisions in the late 1790s, the "slave could not be compelled to serve longer than he would, and ... might leave his master at will." One of the first recorded black slave in Canada was brought by a British convoy to New France in 1628. Canada was not the refuge for slaves that many now imagine it was. 73–135. The abuse committed by her slave owner and her violent resistance was witnessed by Peter Martin and William Grisely. This term can be used both formally and informally. [37] [38] [39] They were held in high regard in the colony. Around the time of the Emancipation, the Underground Railroad network was established in the United States, particularly Ohio, where slaves would cross into the Northern States over the Ohio River and into Canada across Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, en route to various settlements and towns in Upper Canada (known as Canada West from 1841 to 1867, now Ontario). Shawnee, Potawatomi, and other western tribes imported slaves from Ohio and Kentucky and sold or gifted them to allies [26] and Canadian settlers. To help overcome its severe shortage of servants and labourers, King Louis XIV granted New France's petition to import black slaves from West Africa.

Slaves were also used in farming on Long Island and in the Hudson Valley, as well as the Mohawk Valley region. [45] Slavery remained legal, however, until the British Parliament's Slavery Abolition Act finally abolished slavery in most parts of the British Empire effective 1 August 1834. Some provided homes and financial support for their emancipated slaves.

A dreadful event in 1793 finally gave Simcoe an opportunity to act against slavery in Upper Canada. In the American Revolution, gaining freedom was the strongest motive for Black enslaved people who joined the Patriot or British armies. [5], Historian Marcel Trudel estimates that there were fewer than 4,200 slaves in the area of Canada (New France) and later The Canadas between 1671 and 1831.

Russell acted for Simcoe after the Governor returned to England in 1796. [21].

Patrick Bode, "Upper Canada, 1793: Simcoe and the Slaves". This was the first piece of legislation in the British Empire that limited the slave trade or slave-holding. Lieutenant John Clarkson (1764–1828) was a Royal Navy officer and abolitionist, the younger brother of Thomas Clarkson, one of the central figures in the abolition of slavery in England and the British Empire at the close of the 18th century.

Before the term "slave" was used, as Marcel Trudel reminds us in Canada's Forgotten Slaves: Two Hundred Years of Bondage, the preferred term was "savage belonging to…." [24], Historian Marcel Trudel recorded approximately 4000 slaves by the end of New France in 1759, of which 2,472 were Aboriginal people, and 1,132 Blacks. He eventually resettled in Freetown, Sierra Leone. The Act Against Slavery was an anti-slavery law passed on July 9, 1793, in the second legislative session of Upper Canada, the colonial division of British North America that would eventually become Ontario. However, many members of his administration were not. [8] A small portion of Black Canadians today are descended from these slaves.

Thomas Peters, born Thomas Potters, was a veteran of the Black Pioneers, fighting for the British in the American Revolutionary War. He worked to build Loyalist military units to fight in the war, but the number of volunteers was much fewer than London expected. "'This Is No Hearsay': Reading the Canadian Slave Narratives,", Hajda, Yvonne P. "Slavery in the Greater Lower Columbia Region,", Henry, Natasha, Emancipation Day: Celebrating Freedom in Canada, Whitfield, Harvey. During the war, Nova Scotian Sir William Winniett served as a crew on board HMS Tonnant in the effort to free slaves from America. They went into the woods, or back to where they were previously enslaved, often into U.S. colonies. [29].

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Finally the Assembly passed the Act Against Slavery that legislated the gradual abolition of slavery: no slaves could be imported; slaves already in the province would remain enslaved until death, no new slaves could be brought into Upper Canada, and children born to female slaves would be slaves but must be freed at age 25. This law came into effect on August 1, 1834. Owners of freed slaves had to provide for their security. Despite this history of slavery and resistance, the myth of Canada, created and entrenched long ago, remains. [3] Upper Canada passed the Act Against Slavery in 1793, one of the earliest anti-slavery acts in the world. 170. [16] Some nations in British Columbia continued to segregate and ostracize the descendants of slaves as late as the 1970s. But a lie this long will eventually be overwhelmed by a history that can no longer be contained in the dustbins. Canada, made wealthy by the global trade in black bodies, by unpaid labour on much of these lands, has fashioned a satisfying sense of itself that will not easily be torn apart. But not as well known is the fact that slavery existed in Canada for decades, before the institution was outlawed by the Imperial Government in London in 1834. Among a few Pacific Northwest nations about a quarter of the population were slaves. [9] Atlantic Canada saw 1,200 to 2,000 slaves arrive prior to abolition, with 300 accounted for in Lower Canada, and between 500 and 700 in Upper Canada. [32] Historian Alan Wilson describes the document as "a landmark on the road to personal freedom in province and country". [6] They were house servants and farm workers. If they ran away a second time, their hamstrings were cut. In all, Brant owned about forty black slaves. He later immigrated to Sierra Leone, where he helped found Freetown and became the first Methodist missionary to African indigenous people. Daily witnesses to such acts of brutality, many slaves escaped. The elected members of the executive council, many of whom were merchants or farmers who depended on slave labour, saw no need for emancipation. Slavery had a long history in British colonies, and had existed in New France before the Conquest. "They uplift aggression and carnage into courage, they exaggerate cunning into pride.". By 1790 the abolition movement was gaining credence in Canada and the ill intent of slavery was evidenced by an incident involving a slave woman being violently abused by her slave owner on her way to being sold in the United States. As a result, slaves began to flee their masters within the province, but also from other provinces and from the United States. The British government acted in expectation of that, especially in the southern campaigns in 1780–81. David Shanahan - April 22, 2020. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The only difference between a slave and a cow, as Trudel puts it, "was that the slave was worth five times as much." In The Transatlantic Slave Trade, Stephen D. Behrendt writes of early Canadian shipyards constructing ships for the British slave trade. In an economy propelled by the fur trade, as well as urban economies in some places, enslaved Africans worked as rat catchers, hangmen, and domestic servants.

He was later affiliated with the First African Baptist Church of Savannah, Georgia. According to Afua Cooper, author of "The Hanging of Angélique: The Untold Story of Canadian Slavery and the Burning of Old Montréal", enslaved First Nations people outnumbered enslaved individuals of African descent under French rule. Slavery in Canada. However, the social, economic, and legal positions of slaves have differed vastly in different systems of slavery in different times and places. In the late 18th century, when some northern U.S. colonies abolished slavery or made efforts to do so gradually, "many Upper Canadians enslaved Blacks escaped into these free territories," writes Cooper about this kind of reverse Underground Railroad. The first Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada, John Graves Simcoe, had led Loyalist militia during the American Revolution, but was personally strongly opposed to slavery. In particular, the term refers to men who escaped the enslavement of Patriot masters and served on the Loyalist side because of the Crown's promises of freedom.

The code noir does not seem to have applied to Canada and so, in 1709, the intendant Jacques Raudot issued an ordinance officially recognizing slavery in New France; slavery existed before that date, but only as of 1709 was it instituted in law. By. After the American Revolution, many of the Loyalists who were forced to remove to the colony of Quebec brought their slaves with them. It banned the importation of slaves and mandated that children born henceforth to female slaves would be freed upon reaching the age of 25. It banned the importation of slaves and mandated that children born henceforth to female slaves would be freed upon reaching the age of 25. The Book of Negroes is a document created by Brigadier General Samuel Birch that records names and descriptions of 3,000 Black Loyalists, enslaved Africans who escaped to the British lines during the American Revolution and were evacuated to points in Nova Scotia as free people of colour. By the end of the War of 1812 and the arrival of the Black Refugees, there were few slaves left in Nova Scotia [40] (The Slave Trade Act outlawed the slave trade in the British Empire in 1807 and the Slavery Abolition Act of 1833 outlawed slavery altogether.). "In my engagement with African Canadian history, I have come to realize that Black history has less to do with Black people and more with White pride," writes Afua Cooper in The Hanging of Angélique: The Untold Story of Canadian Slavery and the Burning of Old Montréal. Marie-Joseph Angélique was the black slave of a rich widow in Montreal. North Grenville marks Franco-Ontarian Day, Celebrating the generous spirit of our community.

They became known as the Black Loyalists. In Lower Canada, for example, after court decisions in the late 1790s, the "slave could not be compelled to serve longer than he would, and ... might leave his master at will." One of the first recorded black slave in Canada was brought by a British convoy to New France in 1628. Canada was not the refuge for slaves that many now imagine it was. 73–135. The abuse committed by her slave owner and her violent resistance was witnessed by Peter Martin and William Grisely. This term can be used both formally and informally. [37] [38] [39] They were held in high regard in the colony. Around the time of the Emancipation, the Underground Railroad network was established in the United States, particularly Ohio, where slaves would cross into the Northern States over the Ohio River and into Canada across Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, en route to various settlements and towns in Upper Canada (known as Canada West from 1841 to 1867, now Ontario). Shawnee, Potawatomi, and other western tribes imported slaves from Ohio and Kentucky and sold or gifted them to allies [26] and Canadian settlers. To help overcome its severe shortage of servants and labourers, King Louis XIV granted New France's petition to import black slaves from West Africa.

Slaves were also used in farming on Long Island and in the Hudson Valley, as well as the Mohawk Valley region. [45] Slavery remained legal, however, until the British Parliament's Slavery Abolition Act finally abolished slavery in most parts of the British Empire effective 1 August 1834. Some provided homes and financial support for their emancipated slaves.

A dreadful event in 1793 finally gave Simcoe an opportunity to act against slavery in Upper Canada. In the American Revolution, gaining freedom was the strongest motive for Black enslaved people who joined the Patriot or British armies. [5], Historian Marcel Trudel estimates that there were fewer than 4,200 slaves in the area of Canada (New France) and later The Canadas between 1671 and 1831.

Russell acted for Simcoe after the Governor returned to England in 1796. [21].

Patrick Bode, "Upper Canada, 1793: Simcoe and the Slaves". This was the first piece of legislation in the British Empire that limited the slave trade or slave-holding. Lieutenant John Clarkson (1764–1828) was a Royal Navy officer and abolitionist, the younger brother of Thomas Clarkson, one of the central figures in the abolition of slavery in England and the British Empire at the close of the 18th century.

Before the term "slave" was used, as Marcel Trudel reminds us in Canada's Forgotten Slaves: Two Hundred Years of Bondage, the preferred term was "savage belonging to…." [24], Historian Marcel Trudel recorded approximately 4000 slaves by the end of New France in 1759, of which 2,472 were Aboriginal people, and 1,132 Blacks. He eventually resettled in Freetown, Sierra Leone. The Act Against Slavery was an anti-slavery law passed on July 9, 1793, in the second legislative session of Upper Canada, the colonial division of British North America that would eventually become Ontario. However, many members of his administration were not. [8] A small portion of Black Canadians today are descended from these slaves.

Thomas Peters, born Thomas Potters, was a veteran of the Black Pioneers, fighting for the British in the American Revolutionary War. He worked to build Loyalist military units to fight in the war, but the number of volunteers was much fewer than London expected. "'This Is No Hearsay': Reading the Canadian Slave Narratives,", Hajda, Yvonne P. "Slavery in the Greater Lower Columbia Region,", Henry, Natasha, Emancipation Day: Celebrating Freedom in Canada, Whitfield, Harvey. During the war, Nova Scotian Sir William Winniett served as a crew on board HMS Tonnant in the effort to free slaves from America. They went into the woods, or back to where they were previously enslaved, often into U.S. colonies. [29].

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slavery in canada

Mentioned matter-of-factly, this fact can delegitimize the lie that this country differs greatly from its southern neighbour, in the face of a persistent campaign of sanctimonious, narcissism-of-small-differences, and finger-pointing at the United States. Support this experiment in crowdfunded news by becoming a member today. ", In the article "'This is no hearsay': Reading the Canadian Slave Narratives," George Elliott Clarke notes the 19th-century development in many ordinary people of a view of "Canada as a true, free land opposing the 'United Slave States of America.'". Sometimes they filed lawsuits and questioned the ownership rights of their masters. But this history is too big to remain in the dustbins. Peter Russell, the Receiver General of Upper Canada, and his sister Elizabeth owned slaves. "That is why slavery has been erased from the collective consciousness. A Black Loyalist was a person of African descent who sided with the Loyalists during the American Revolutionary War. Legally owned by the Church, lawyers, business people, and merchants, they suffered indignities, loss of control over their lives, and a dimming view of their own and their families' futures that we can only imagine. In 1798 there was an attempt by lobby groups to rectify the legislation and import more slaves. The Sierra Leone Company was established to relocate groups of formerly enslaved Africans, nearly 1,200 black Nova Scotians, most of whom had escaped enslavement in the United States. No slaves could enter the province: any slaves brought into Upper Canada would be freed automatically. Given the coastal environment of Nova Scotia, many had died from the harsh winters. Black Nova Scotians or African Nova Scotians are Black Canadians whose ancestors primarily date back to the Colonial United States as slaves or freemen, and later arrived in Nova Scotia, Canada during the 18th and early 19th centuries. Slavery in Canada includes both that practised by First Nations from earliest times and that under European colonization. [4] These early measures resulted in a significant number of Black people (free and slaves) immigrating to Canada from the United States after the American Revolution and again after the War of 1812, many by way of the Underground Railroad. A white person beat a black child slave to death with a hammer for some perceived, yet undocumented, transgression.

Finally the Assembly passed the Act Against Slavery that legislated the gradual abolition of slavery: no slaves could be imported; slaves already in the province would remain enslaved until death, no new slaves could be brought into Upper Canada, and children born to female slaves would be slaves but must be freed at age 25. This law came into effect on August 1, 1834. Owners of freed slaves had to provide for their security. Despite this history of slavery and resistance, the myth of Canada, created and entrenched long ago, remains. [3] Upper Canada passed the Act Against Slavery in 1793, one of the earliest anti-slavery acts in the world. 170. [16] Some nations in British Columbia continued to segregate and ostracize the descendants of slaves as late as the 1970s. But a lie this long will eventually be overwhelmed by a history that can no longer be contained in the dustbins. Canada, made wealthy by the global trade in black bodies, by unpaid labour on much of these lands, has fashioned a satisfying sense of itself that will not easily be torn apart. But not as well known is the fact that slavery existed in Canada for decades, before the institution was outlawed by the Imperial Government in London in 1834. Among a few Pacific Northwest nations about a quarter of the population were slaves. [9] Atlantic Canada saw 1,200 to 2,000 slaves arrive prior to abolition, with 300 accounted for in Lower Canada, and between 500 and 700 in Upper Canada. [32] Historian Alan Wilson describes the document as "a landmark on the road to personal freedom in province and country". [6] They were house servants and farm workers. If they ran away a second time, their hamstrings were cut. In all, Brant owned about forty black slaves. He later immigrated to Sierra Leone, where he helped found Freetown and became the first Methodist missionary to African indigenous people. Daily witnesses to such acts of brutality, many slaves escaped. The elected members of the executive council, many of whom were merchants or farmers who depended on slave labour, saw no need for emancipation. Slavery had a long history in British colonies, and had existed in New France before the Conquest. "They uplift aggression and carnage into courage, they exaggerate cunning into pride.". By 1790 the abolition movement was gaining credence in Canada and the ill intent of slavery was evidenced by an incident involving a slave woman being violently abused by her slave owner on her way to being sold in the United States. As a result, slaves began to flee their masters within the province, but also from other provinces and from the United States. The British government acted in expectation of that, especially in the southern campaigns in 1780–81. David Shanahan - April 22, 2020. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The only difference between a slave and a cow, as Trudel puts it, "was that the slave was worth five times as much." In The Transatlantic Slave Trade, Stephen D. Behrendt writes of early Canadian shipyards constructing ships for the British slave trade. In an economy propelled by the fur trade, as well as urban economies in some places, enslaved Africans worked as rat catchers, hangmen, and domestic servants.

He was later affiliated with the First African Baptist Church of Savannah, Georgia. According to Afua Cooper, author of "The Hanging of Angélique: The Untold Story of Canadian Slavery and the Burning of Old Montréal", enslaved First Nations people outnumbered enslaved individuals of African descent under French rule. Slavery in Canada. However, the social, economic, and legal positions of slaves have differed vastly in different systems of slavery in different times and places. In the late 18th century, when some northern U.S. colonies abolished slavery or made efforts to do so gradually, "many Upper Canadians enslaved Blacks escaped into these free territories," writes Cooper about this kind of reverse Underground Railroad. The first Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada, John Graves Simcoe, had led Loyalist militia during the American Revolution, but was personally strongly opposed to slavery. In particular, the term refers to men who escaped the enslavement of Patriot masters and served on the Loyalist side because of the Crown's promises of freedom.

The code noir does not seem to have applied to Canada and so, in 1709, the intendant Jacques Raudot issued an ordinance officially recognizing slavery in New France; slavery existed before that date, but only as of 1709 was it instituted in law. By. After the American Revolution, many of the Loyalists who were forced to remove to the colony of Quebec brought their slaves with them. It banned the importation of slaves and mandated that children born henceforth to female slaves would be freed upon reaching the age of 25. It banned the importation of slaves and mandated that children born henceforth to female slaves would be freed upon reaching the age of 25. The Book of Negroes is a document created by Brigadier General Samuel Birch that records names and descriptions of 3,000 Black Loyalists, enslaved Africans who escaped to the British lines during the American Revolution and were evacuated to points in Nova Scotia as free people of colour. By the end of the War of 1812 and the arrival of the Black Refugees, there were few slaves left in Nova Scotia [40] (The Slave Trade Act outlawed the slave trade in the British Empire in 1807 and the Slavery Abolition Act of 1833 outlawed slavery altogether.). "In my engagement with African Canadian history, I have come to realize that Black history has less to do with Black people and more with White pride," writes Afua Cooper in The Hanging of Angélique: The Untold Story of Canadian Slavery and the Burning of Old Montréal. Marie-Joseph Angélique was the black slave of a rich widow in Montreal. North Grenville marks Franco-Ontarian Day, Celebrating the generous spirit of our community.

They became known as the Black Loyalists. In Lower Canada, for example, after court decisions in the late 1790s, the "slave could not be compelled to serve longer than he would, and ... might leave his master at will." One of the first recorded black slave in Canada was brought by a British convoy to New France in 1628. Canada was not the refuge for slaves that many now imagine it was. 73–135. The abuse committed by her slave owner and her violent resistance was witnessed by Peter Martin and William Grisely. This term can be used both formally and informally. [37] [38] [39] They were held in high regard in the colony. Around the time of the Emancipation, the Underground Railroad network was established in the United States, particularly Ohio, where slaves would cross into the Northern States over the Ohio River and into Canada across Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, en route to various settlements and towns in Upper Canada (known as Canada West from 1841 to 1867, now Ontario). Shawnee, Potawatomi, and other western tribes imported slaves from Ohio and Kentucky and sold or gifted them to allies [26] and Canadian settlers. To help overcome its severe shortage of servants and labourers, King Louis XIV granted New France's petition to import black slaves from West Africa.

Slaves were also used in farming on Long Island and in the Hudson Valley, as well as the Mohawk Valley region. [45] Slavery remained legal, however, until the British Parliament's Slavery Abolition Act finally abolished slavery in most parts of the British Empire effective 1 August 1834. Some provided homes and financial support for their emancipated slaves.

A dreadful event in 1793 finally gave Simcoe an opportunity to act against slavery in Upper Canada. In the American Revolution, gaining freedom was the strongest motive for Black enslaved people who joined the Patriot or British armies. [5], Historian Marcel Trudel estimates that there were fewer than 4,200 slaves in the area of Canada (New France) and later The Canadas between 1671 and 1831.

Russell acted for Simcoe after the Governor returned to England in 1796. [21].

Patrick Bode, "Upper Canada, 1793: Simcoe and the Slaves". This was the first piece of legislation in the British Empire that limited the slave trade or slave-holding. Lieutenant John Clarkson (1764–1828) was a Royal Navy officer and abolitionist, the younger brother of Thomas Clarkson, one of the central figures in the abolition of slavery in England and the British Empire at the close of the 18th century.

Before the term "slave" was used, as Marcel Trudel reminds us in Canada's Forgotten Slaves: Two Hundred Years of Bondage, the preferred term was "savage belonging to…." [24], Historian Marcel Trudel recorded approximately 4000 slaves by the end of New France in 1759, of which 2,472 were Aboriginal people, and 1,132 Blacks. He eventually resettled in Freetown, Sierra Leone. The Act Against Slavery was an anti-slavery law passed on July 9, 1793, in the second legislative session of Upper Canada, the colonial division of British North America that would eventually become Ontario. However, many members of his administration were not. [8] A small portion of Black Canadians today are descended from these slaves.

Thomas Peters, born Thomas Potters, was a veteran of the Black Pioneers, fighting for the British in the American Revolutionary War. He worked to build Loyalist military units to fight in the war, but the number of volunteers was much fewer than London expected. "'This Is No Hearsay': Reading the Canadian Slave Narratives,", Hajda, Yvonne P. "Slavery in the Greater Lower Columbia Region,", Henry, Natasha, Emancipation Day: Celebrating Freedom in Canada, Whitfield, Harvey. During the war, Nova Scotian Sir William Winniett served as a crew on board HMS Tonnant in the effort to free slaves from America. They went into the woods, or back to where they were previously enslaved, often into U.S. colonies. [29].

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