San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1983.
endobj endobj They also began creating their own organizations—such as the Salsa Soul Sisters, one of the first out and explicitly multi-cultural lesbian organizations —due to tensions with straight black feminists as well as white gays and lesbians. However, we Marxist-feminists were not about to wait until after the revolution, nor were we willing to give up our connection to Marxism or the vision of a better, socialist future.
<>/Font<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 12/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> AppendPDF Pro 6.3 Linux 64 bit Aug 30 2019 Library 15.0.4 211 0 obj uuid:6a578bf5-adc1-11b2-0a00-a0a96f020000 Some feared that acknowledging interconnecting identities and forms of oppression would prove divisive, but what began as splintering gave birth to a new form of politics: solidarity politics. The movement of movements is a major actor in a new world theater, yet most are unaware of it. Together We Rise: The Women’s March: Behind the Scenes at the Protest Heard Around the World (New York: Dey Street Books, 2018), 215 –216. Without an overarching vision of systemic transformation, the feminist movement in the US has tended to focus on demands for equal opportunity within the prevailing system, such as gaining representation in positions across the economic hierarchy previously monopolized by men.
222 0 obj <>stream Ignoring these other systems of oppression amounted to privileging the experiences and needs of white, heterosexual, Northern, middle-class, and professional women, while ignoring how the feminist movement was reproducing class, racial-ethnic, North-South, and other forms of inequality. In the early 1970s, second-wave feminism (so-named in contrast to the first wave, which focused on gaining the right to vote) exploded in the United States and beyond. <>stream Sister Outsider, by Audre Lorde, is one of many foundational womanist writings produced during this period.
endobj The recognition of intersectionality put an end to simple identity politics. 263 0 obj A related way of recognizing the solidarity economy as a feminist project is to examine how economic agency is transformed.
Elizabeth Spelman, Inessential Woman: Problems of Exclusion in Feminist Thought (Boston: Beacon Press, 1988). Thus a much more complex and comprehensive revolutionary agent has emerged than the homogeneous industrial working class that Marx envisioned as the builder of socialism: a set of interconnected and mutually determining social movements. Their needs and worldviews are distinct from those of black men and white women. 268 0 obj Available in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish, Cite as Julie Matthaei, "Feminism and Revolution: Looking Back, Looking Ahead,", Intersectionality and the Collapse of an Identity Politics of Revolution, From Solidarity Politics to Solidarity Economics, https://www.newstatesman.com/blogs/laurie-penny/2011/07/women-business-finance-power, http://www.universidadepopular.org/site/media/documentos/WSF_-_charter_of_Principles.pdf, http://www.greattransition.org/publication/feminism-and-revolution. With the democratic failure and dissolution of the Soviet Union, and the decline of the labor movement in the face of relentless political attacks, Francis Fukiyama pronounced communism and Marxism dead in his widely cited 1992 book The End of History. 252 0 obj Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches by Audre Lorde, 1984. The capitalist economy was built as a white-masculine-dominated sphere, defined by traditionally masculine qualities of competition—the struggle to win, i.e., to “better” or dominate other men. Introduction | Feminism Meets Marxism | Intersectionality and the Collapse of an Identity Politics of Revolution | The Rise of Solidarity Politics | From Solidarity Politics to Solidarity Economics | Feminism and the Solidarity Economy | Conclusion | Endnotes. That queer black women, queer black folks have always been in these spaces. Our own experience showed us that leftist men in the US were sexist as well. endobj 2. Photograph of Mary Church Terrell by Addison Scurlock, ca. 1. New York, NY: The New Press, 1995. Cooper, Brittney C. Beyond Respectability: The Intellectual Thought of Race Women. This text is included at the start, since it is both referenced and criticized by so many of the texts that follow.
2020-02-24T13:52:48-08:00 Black women are often thought to be at a disadvantage because of racism and sexism, but some black feminists view their position as one of possibility. 266 0 obj <> Thatcher’s response to critics of capitalism’s ravages of the working class and the environment was TINA (“There Is No Alternative”). Zillah Eisenstein (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1979).
endstream The solidarity economy framework—which highlights the term solidarity—affirms this core aspect of the new system that solidarity politics is working for. <> Moreover, it is imperative that all progressive movements be vigilant about the challenge of intersectionality and commit themselves to eradicating all forms of inequality—including male domination and gender oppression—that they encounter within their organizations and in their organizing. endobj An implacable and inclusive feminism remains essential for building the larger solidarity politics and economics we need for a Great Transition that eliminates oppression of all kinds. Words of Fire: An Anthology of African American Feminist Thought. Feminist organizing, according to male leftists, would divide the working class, and thereby perpetuate capitalism. This happens naturally within identity-politics groups as they grapple with intersectionality.
Revolutionary Black feminism insists that we understand and contend with the fundamental fact of deadly transnational capitalism, hetero-patriarchal, white supremacist dispossession. The Great Transition Initiative has, for more than a decade, posited the emergence of a “global citizens movement” capable of shifting the world toward a just and sustainable future.
endobj Ecofeminists called upon women to join the ecology movement as an extension of being women, and many heeded the call. Revolutionary definition is - of, relating to, or constituting a revolution. This refusal to separate her identity fueled her legal work and activism. endobj This growing movement emerged in the 1990s, both in Europe and in Latin America, and spread globally through the World Social Forum movement, overlapping with the New Economy movement, Sumak Kawsay/Buen Vivir, and the Community Economy movement, among others.16.
Solidarity politics has been developing in other social movements as well, as they confront the inadequacies of a unidimensional view and grapple with intersectionality. endobj However, it also exemplified solidarity politics. In her essays and speeches, Lorde discusses the connected issues of sexism, racism, classism, and heterosexism, while calling for new tactics that centered these intersections. “Lifting as we climb,” the slogan of the National Association of Colored Women (NACW), became a well-known motto for black women’s activism in the late nineteenth century. This agent of transformation sees an issue from the point of view of all of the oppressed—not just a privileged subgroup—making it appropriate to the task of deconstructing and transforming the multiple, interdependent forms of inequality and oppression that characterize our current global capitalist system. We argued for a dual struggle against capitalism and patriarchy, two intertwined economic systems, by organizing women against male domination, and workers against class domination. While cooperatives of all sorts—worker, consumer, and producer—comprise a key building block of the solidarity economy, so, too, do efforts to promote socially responsible consumption patterns, shift investment toward social and environmental goals, and redesign enterprise for community benefit. endobj
We participated actively in the creation of socialist-feminist women’s unions in Berkeley, Chicago, and New Haven, among others, in which academics and activists came together to advocate systematic feminist, anti-classist transformation of capitalism.2, We adapted Marxist theory so that it could be better used to analyze and elucidate the economic position of women. 205 0 obj Extending bell hooks' Feminist Theory We subscribed to Marx’s view of economic transformation as a revolutionary process, fueled by struggle by members of the oppressed group. Simply put, the way out of the challenges posed by intersectionality for feminists, especially Marxist-feminists, has been to expand our practice of feminism. This key shift within feminism occurred at the same time another form of solidarity politics was forging ties—not within but among social movements. endobj Parents teach by modeling positive mutuality in their own relationship, and in their relationships with their children—rather than being either domineering (traditional father) or servile (traditional mother). <>1]/P 13 0 R/Pg 222 0 R/S/Link>> endobj All must be addressed simultaneously. <> Revolutionary Feminism Feminist reading featuring Nancy Fraser, Nina Lakhani, Andrea Long Chu, Juno Mac and Molly Smith, Leta Hong Fincher, Sophie Lewis and Elizabeth Martínez. A rich line of left-ecofeminist analysis developed. 272 0 obj
The first major historical account of gender politics during the Nasser era, Revolutionary Womanhood analyzes feminism as a system of ideas and political practices, international in origin but local in iteration. As a result, an intersectional view of feminism was front and center in the March’s Mission Statement, which asserted, “We stand together, recognizing that defending the most marginalized among us is defending all of us.” Its Unity Principles asserted that “Gender Justice is Racial Justice is Economic Justice,” and foregrounded immigrants’, civil, LGBTQ, disability, and workers’ rights as well as women’s rights, and a commitment to environmental justice. For overviews of the solidarity economy, see Jenna Allard, Carl Davidson, and Julie Matthaei, Solidarity Economy: Building Alternatives for People and Planet (Chicago: Changemaker, 2008); Emily Kawano, Thomas Neal Masterson, and Jonathan Teller-Elsberg, Solidarity Economy I: Building Alternatives for People and Planet (Amherst, MA: Center for Popular Economics, 2010); and Peter Utting’s edited collection, Social and Solidarity Economy: Beyond the Fringe (London: Zed Books/UNRISD, 2015). The (white) masculine ideal of the “self-made man” was one who made it from the bottom to the top of the economic hierarchy of wealth and power. Addressing this challenge gave birth to a solidarity politics within feminism rooted in intersectionality and manifest both within the movement and in its relationship with other movements. A simple identity politics of womanhood or a class-specific Marxist politics of a working-class revolution would not suffice.
Then, in 2001, women’s, workers, environmental, LGBTQ, peace, peasant, indigenous, and other social movements came together at the first World Social Forum under the motto “another world is possible,” starting a wave of global and local organizing that continues today. 208 0 obj 15. I rarely talk about feminism in the singular. <>]/P 30 0 R/Pg 251 0 R/S/Link>> 264 0 obj The breakdown of identity politics as a basis for both social movements and visions of revolutionary system change coincided with other historical changes dimming the prospects of socialist revolution. Firms embodied this ethos of narrow materialistic self-interest in the form of profit-motivated production, with a callous disregard for the needs of their workers, consumers, and the ecosystem. 7. Second, targets shift from the dominant group—i.e., “men (or the 1% or whites) are the enemy”—to the social concepts, practices, and institutions that create and perpetuate a particular structural inequality.
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